Category Archives: Funeral Terminology

Casket Nomenclature: Hardware

When it comes to caskets there are several major areas one can discuss: materials (exterior design), components, hardware, and design (interior).  In an early entry, I provided information about the component parts of a casket; this post only concerns itself with the hardware of the casket.  

Hardware

There are two main pieces of hardware (i.e. ornamental fixtures and their fittings) that are attached to the shell of a casket: (1) the handles and (2) the corners.  Production methods for hardware are dependent on the material.  If the hardware is metal, the hardware can be produced in one of two ways: cast or stamped.  Cast hardware is more expensive.  If the hardware is plastic, a plastic extrusion molding method is utilized.

(1) HANDLES

Handle (in white attached to the blue casket shell)

The handle is available in four different styles: (a) stationary, (b) swing, (c) bail, and (d) integrated.  A stationary bar is a non-moveable casket handle.  This can be a full-length bar or individual bars.  A swing bar is a moveable casket handle with a hinged arm.  This can be a full-length bar or individual bars.  A bail handle is a single handle in which the lug, arm, and bar are combined in one unit.  An integrated handle is a handle that is integrated into the side of the casket; there are no attached handles.  This can usually be found on wood caskets.

There four component parts of a handle: (a) ear, (b) arm, (c) bar, and (d) tip.

Ear, Lug, or Escutcheon

(a) The ear, also known as the lug or escutcheon, is the part of the casket handle that is attached to the shell.

Arm

(b) The arm is the part of the casket handle that attaches the bar to the ear (or lug).

Bar

(c) The bar is the part of the casket handle, attached to the ear (lug) and arm, that is grasped by the casketbearer.

Tip

(d) The tip  is the decorative or ornamental part of the casket handle that covers the exposed ends of the bar.

(2) CORNERS

Corner

The corners are an optional part of the hardware attached to the four corners of the body panel.  There are several different subcategorical distinctions concerning the corners of caskets: applied and inset, interrupted and end-around (this distinction is an archaic one and slowly vanishing), supportive and non-supportive (this is only for caskets with full length stationary bars).

Applied corners are corners that have been attached to the casket by nail, screw, or adhesive.  Inset corners, on the other hand, involve partially cutting the corner of the casket and making room in which to insert the decorative corner.

MISCELLANEOUS

Lastly, there are other features that are available on certain models of caskets. They are as follows:

  1. Corner designs – Changeable casket corners; these may be removed prior to the committal service and kept as keepsakes
  2. Commemorative panels – changeable interior casket lid design
  3. Memory safe drawers – a drawer in which one may place notes, special memorabilia, pictures, etc.
  4. Memorial record system – provides a record of identification, if needed, without opening the casket
  5. Cathodic protection – method of inhibiting rust on basic grade stainless steel caskets that involves the insertion of a magnesium bar in a formed channel on the bottom of a casket

SOURCE(S):

IMAGE CREDIT: All images used in this post with exception of those specified otherwise were found on Quizlet or StudyDroid.

All definitions and information were taken from my compendium for funeral practice class at the University of Minnesota:

Mathews, M. (2003). Funeral Service Practice Part I: Services and ceremonies, casket construction and design, survivor benefits. University of Minnesota: Minneapolis.

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Casket Nomenclature: Component Parts of the Casket

After having finished the post on funeral terminology, the difference between caskets and coffins, I began thinking about the actual casket itself.  When it comes to caskets there are several major areas one can discuss: materials (exterior design), components, hardware and interior design.  This post only concerns itself with the component parts of the casket.  I am going to forewarn you: this is not going to be the most riveting post, BUT this is interesting in some respects, so please do continue reading.

So, I bet you’re picturing something like this:

Image Credit: Choice Caskets

While the above picture is not incorrect, in reality it’s something a little more like this:

Shell

The shell of a casket is composed of two parts: (1) the cap or lid and (2) the body of the casket.

(1) CAP

Cap or Lid

The cap, or lid, is the top most part of the casket shell; it includes the (a) ogee, (b) crown, (c) pie, and (d) header.

Ogee or Rim

(a) The ogee, or rim, is typically an “S” shaped molding and is part of the cap.  There are many rim shape variations, but the most common is the Roman style or “S” shaped molding.  Other common shapes are: flat, rising flat, oval, square, and concave.  The turned under edge or horizontal portion of the rim, which comes in contact with both the gasket (if the casket is a sealing casket) and body ledge flange (top body molding flange), is called the ogee flange.

Ogee Flange

Crown or swell

(b) The crown, or swell, is the upper most part of the cap, extending from rim to rim; everything above the ogee.  Crowns come in three variations: flat, semi-oval, and full oval.

Pie or fishtail

(c) The pie, or fishtail, is the wedge-shaped portion cap at each end of the crown.

Bridge, header or cap filler

(d) The bridge or header, sometimes also called the cap filler, is part of the cap that is seen in caskets that display a cut top.  It provides strength and rigidity at the point of the transverse cut.  The turned under edge or horizontal portion of the header is called the header flange.

Before moving on to the components of the body of the casket, you will find, highlighted in the picture below, the inside lid flange, which encompasses both the ogee flange and the header flange that were mentioned previously.

Inside lid flange: ogee flange + header flange

(2) BODY

Body

 The body is the portion of the shell containing the (a) top body molding, (b) body panel, (c) base molding, and (d) casket bottom.

Top body molding, body ledge, top molding or top rail

(a) The top body molding, also referred to as the body ledge, top molding or top rail, is a molding along the uppermost edge of the body panels.  The red arrow points to the top body molding.  The top molding has four basic variations: quarter round, half round, square or oblong.  The horizontal portion or turned inward portion of the top body molding is the body ledge flange or top body molding flange. The red arrow is directed along the outer most portion of the body ledge flange.

Top body molding flange or body ledge flange

Body Panels: side panels + end panels

(b) The body panels compose the sides and ends of the casket shell.  The end panels* have five variations: vertical, flaring, urn, octagon, and elliptical. The side panels* have three variations: vertical, flaring, and urn.

Base molding or bottom rail

(c) The base molding, or bottom rail, is the molding long the lowermost edge of the body panels.  The variations available in  base molding are quarter round, semi-oval, log, plank, paneled plank,  and roman.

(d) The bottom on casket is self explanatory.  On metal caskets the bottoms are metal whereas bottoms on wood caskets can be made of ship-lapped planks or a sheet of plywood.

CORNERS

Corner shape refers to the way the end and side body panels meet.  There are two variations in corner shape: square and rounded.  Rounded corners are generally more expensive.  Below is a close-up of a casket with rounded corners followed by a close-up of a casket with square corners.

Rounded Corners; Image Credit: Casket Connection Co.

Square Corners; Image Credit: Geneva Manufacturing

Please ignore the corner piece, the customizable piece of decorative hardware, you see on each end.  Rather, focus on the manner in which the side and end panels are meeting–that is the “L” shaped manner definitive of square corners.

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*A detailed description of end panel variations:

  1. Vertical – Caskets with vertical side and end panels are classified as Vertical Side Square caskets or State caskets.
  2. Flaring – Flaring is best described as an end that flares outward from bottom to top.  This is mostly seen in hard wood or cloth covered caskets.  
  3. Urn end – It is best described as a gentle “S” shape.  This is found in both metal and wood caskets that also have the urn side panels.  
  4. Octagon – This is found only in wood casket.  Each end has three pieces; they can be vertical or flaring.
  5. Elliptical – The end panels are rounded.  Do NOT confuse this with rounded corners.  Elliptical ends may be vertical or have a slight flare. 

*Side panel variations:

  1. Vertical – See description of vertical end panels.
  2. Flaring – See description of flaring end panels.
  3. Urn side – See description of urn end panels.

SOURCE(S):

IMAGE CREDIT: All images used in this post with exception of those specified otherwise were found on Quizlet or StudyDroid.

All definitions and information were taken from my compendium for Funeral Practice I taught by Professor Michael Mathews at the University of Minnesota:

Mathews, M. (2003). Funeral Service Practice Part I: Services and ceremonies, casket construction and design, survivor benefits. University of Minnesota: Minneapolis.

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Funeral Terminology: The Difference Between Coffins and Caskets

Before I continue on to the intended subject, I would like to mention that one of the mortuary archaeology blogs that I follow, Bones Don’t Lie, also has a similarly inspired series entitled Morbid Terminology.

So, is it a coffin or a casket?   This type of post is common among funeral blogs my google search tells me, which means there are apparently still plenty out there that are ignorant to the difference.  And you know, considering my overwhelming desire to blend in with my peers, I must do one of these types of posts myself– I mean what would a funeral terminology series be without rehashing the definitions of these two particular terms?  I will say though, that because I am no longer a student, I do not have free access to the wealth of primary or even secondary sources like I used to. So as much as I wanted to search some journals for some interesting articles, I simply could not.

     The Coffin and the Casket

Image Credit: Victoria Funerals

The terms casket and coffin are used interchangeably with such frequency that alluding to the difference elicits blank stares or the very familiar “Oh” from some people.   While I cannot attest to the validity of the statement across history, culture or continents, I can tell you that within the contemporary North American funeral industry there is a distinction between the terms casket and coffin.  With both serving the same general purpose, the significant distinction lies in the design.  

Technically, according to the Australian Museum, coffin is the general term for the receptacles in which human remains are buried.  A coffin, by definition with respect to the funeral industry, is a case or receptacle for human remains which is anthropoid in shape with six or eight sides.  Thus, coffins are tapered at the head and foot, which according to one of my professors, was why they were sometimes referred to as toe pinchers.

A casket, on the other hand, is defined, by the Federal Trade Commission in the Funeral Rule – 16 CFR Part 453, as  “a rigid container which is designed for the encasement of human remains and which is usually constructed of wood, metal, or like material, and ornamented and lined with fabric” (See this document, section Definitions).  Another definition for casket is as follows:

“A case or receptacle in which human remains are placed for protection, practical utility, and a suitable memory picture; any box or container of one or more parts in which a dead human body is placed prior to interment, entombment, or cremation which may or may not be permanently interred, entombed, or cremated with the human remains” *

Caskets do not taper at the head and foot and are typically rectangular in shape.  The other difference in design can been seen in the tops. Coffins typically have removable tops, whereas caskets typically have hinged tops.  Of course, this is not always the case as you can see in the pictures below, but it is worth noting.

Coffin with removable top; Image credit: Vampires R Us

Coffin with hinged top; Image Credit: The Friendly Funeralista

Typical casket, perfection half couch cut; Image credit: American Casket Store

In terms of contemporary trends, the coffin is still rather popular in Europe, while the casket is more popular in North America. Princess Diana was buried in a lead-lined coffin; it weighed 40 stone or approximately 560 pounds (Sweeney et al., 1997).

I will end this post with two entries on the etymology of casket and coffin from the Online Etymology Dictionary,* because I have always found etymology to be interesting. 

Casket: mid-15c., “small box for jewels, etc.,” possibly formed as a dim. of English cask, or from M.Fr. casset (see cassette). Meaning “coffin” is Amer.Eng., probably euphemistic, first attested 1849.

Coffin: early 14c., “chest or box for valuables,” from O.Fr. cofin “sarcophagus,” earlier “basket, coffer” (12c., Mod.Fr. coffin), from L. cophinus “basket, hamper” (cf. It. cafano, Sp. cuebano “basket”), from Gk. kophinos “a basket,” of uncertain origin. Funeral sense in English is 1520s; before that it was the literal Latin one and had also a meaning of “pie crust” (late 14c.). Meaning “vehicle regarded as unsafe” is from 1830s. Coffin nail “cigarette” is slang from 1880; nail in (one’s) coffin “thing that contributes to one’s death” is from 1792.

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*I am unsure of the origin of this second definition for casket, but it is standard in the industry and appears in every funeral terminology text that I have seen. This leads me to believe it originated or was agreed upon by one of the national associations.

*The basic sources for the online etymology site are Weekley’s An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, Klein’s A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English LanguageOxford English Dictionary (second edition), Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, Holthausen’s Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Englischen Sprache, and Kipfer & Chapman’s Dictionary of American Slang.

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